Rapid Gender Analysis in Haiti Impacts of the 2021 Earthquake

Almost half of the population of Haiti’s Grand Sud region was affected (800,000 people) by August 14, 2021 earthquake, and a third of that population (650,000 people) needs emergency humanitarian aid. There were 2,248 people killed, 12,763 people injured and 329 people missing. This comes in a very difficult context for Haiti, with the continued impacts of COVID-19, the political situation, and the impacts of cyclones on the area weaking already fragile systems. It is in this context that CARE and UN Women are launching this Rapid Gender Analysis to understand how these impacts fall on people of different genders and with different ages and vulnerabilities.
In total, between August 25 and September 2, 2021, the RGA connected with approximately 1,088 people through in-person data collection methods, and over 3,200 people through mobile and online methods (in total, 49% women and 51% men). This covers the departments of Grand Anse, Nippes, and Sud.

Key Findings

• Shelter is a priority need, especially for women and girls. 63% of organizations interviewed and 50% of youth said shelter is their number one concern now. It is estimated that 21% and 76% more women than men in Grand ’Anse and Nippes, respectively, have nowhere to live in the aftermath of the earthquake. 18% of women and 12% of men surveyed have no shelter, while 53% of women and 56% of men sleep next to a damaged house.
Gender-based violence is becoming a serious crisis. 70% of women and men surveyed said their fear of sexual violence had increased since the earthquake. 43% of community leaders and 75% of youth say GBV has increased since the earthquake. 70% of organizations say women and girls are most at risk of GBV.

• Livelihoods are weakening, especially with disrupted markets. 33% of men and women noted a reduction in paid work and income opportunities. 23% of adult women and 8% of men saw that their economic activities were interrupted. 48% of community members report that having no work is the most important change in their daily life. 57% of girls have lost their productive capital — the part of the population most affected by this problem.

• 60% of communities lack access to water. 24% women disproportionately stressed the risk of disease compared to 5% for men. Women and girls bear the biggest burden with this impact, both because they are responsible for getting and carrying water, and because of their specific water needs for their menstrual hygiene.

• Health is at risk, especially mental health. 32% of people report psychological trauma as a serious impact of the earthquake. 68% of service providers find that women have little or no access to health care. The risks are high for pregnant women (according to 46% of service providers) and people with disabilities (according to 27% of providers).

• Food security needs are on the rise. 60% of respondents, and 76% of organizations say that food is one of the main needs. 33% of girls — versus 28% of boys — say food security is their number one concern. Of particular concern is the finding that only those who have physical strength can access the distributions, and that, women who must stay at home to protect their children do not have access. Other groups are also at risk. “In our society we do not see the LGBT community favorably, on the other hand we more or less understand the disabled and people with chronic diseases” group of women.

• Information is essential, across multiple channels. 41% of organizations say that the lack of information creates a problem for the population, especially when it comes to accessing aid of any kind. Only 7% of women in the area have internet access, so information needs to be shared through multiple methods.